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Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which ended the Mexican-American War
In November 1835, the northern part of the Mexican state of Coahuila-Tejas declared itself in revolt against Mexico's new centralist government headed by President Antonio López de Santa Anna. In February of 1836, the revolting Texians declared their territory to be independent and that its border extended to the Rio Grande rather than the Rio Nueces that the Mexicans had long recognized as the dividing line.
Although the Texas Army scored a stunning defeat against Santa Anna's army at the battle of San Jacinto, there were still thousands of Mexican troops in the break-away republic that had not taken part in the San Jacinto Battle and the end of hostilities between the break-away republic and Mexico were far from over. It was precisely this danger that General Sam Houston had in his mind as he prevented Santa Anna from being executed at San Jacinto. General Santa Anna was needed to negotiate a settlement to the war.
The President of the Republic of Texas, David G. Burnet had treaty papers drawn up at the Port of Velasco on May 14, 1836 for General Santa Anna to sign. There were two treaties of Velasco, one designated a public treaty and one a private treaty. The public treaty was to be published immediately after it was signed.
However, both sides ignored the provisions of the Treaties of Velasco and the Mexican government continued to consider Tejas a rebellious province that they would reconquer someday
Republic of Texas is Annexed Into the US (1845)
In December 1845, the U.S. Congress voted to annex the Texas Republic and soon sent troops led by General Zachary Taylor to the Rio Grande (regarded by Mexicans as their territory) to protect its border with Mexico. The inevitable clashes between Mexican troops and U.S. forces provided the rationale for a Congressional declaration of war on May 13, 1846.
Hostilities between the US and Mexico continued for the next two years as General Taylor led his troops through to Monterrey, and General Stephen Kearny and his men went to New Mexico, Chihuahua, and California. But it was General Winfield Scott and his army that delivered the decisive blows as they marched from Veracruz to Puebla and finally captured Mexico City itself in August 1847.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo-The End of the Mexican War (February 2, 1848)
Mexican officials and Nicholas Trist, President Polk's representative, began discussions for a peace treaty in August, 1847 and the treaty was finalized on February 2, 1848 in Guadalupe Hidalgo, a city north of the capital where the Mexican government had fled as U.S. troops advanced.
The treaty provided for the Mexican Cession of some 1.36 million km² (525,000 square miles) of territory to the United States in exchange for USD$15 million. The United States also agreed to take over $3.25 million in debts Mexico owed to American citizens.
The cession included parts of the modern-day U.S. states of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming, as well as the whole of California, Nevada, and Utah. The remaining parts of what are today the states of Arizona and New Mexico were later ceded under the 1853 Gadsden Purchase.
The treaty was signed by Nicholas P. Trist on behalf of the United States and Luis G. Cuevas, Bernardo Couto and Miguel Atristain as representatives of Mexico. On February 2, 1848, at the main altar of the old Cathedral of Guadalupe at Villa Hidalgo (today Gustavo A. Madero, D.F.), slightly north of Mexico City. The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was ratified by the United States Senate on March 10, 1848 and ratified by the Mexican government on May 19, 1848. The US and Mexico exchanged written verification of the treaty ratifications on May 30, 1848, at the city of Santiago de Querétaro.
The version of the treaty ratified by the United States Senate eliminated Article 10, which stated that the U.S. government would honor and guarantee all land grants awarded in lands ceded to the United States to citizens of Spain and Mexico by those respective governments. Article 8 guaranteed that Mexicans who remained more than one year in the ceded lands would automatically become full-fledged American citizens (or they could declare their intention of remaining Mexican citizens); however, this Article was effectively weakened by Article 9, written into the treaty by the U.S. Senate, which stated that Mexican citizens would "be admitted at the proper time (to be judged of by the Congress of the United States)."
So ended the hostilities between the US and Mexico.
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